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How to Cite

Information on citing references.



Note:  If all of the references below were in a bibliography, they would all be numbered consecutively in the order they appeared in the text. 


  1. O'Brien C. Drug addiction and drug abuse. In: Brunton LB, Lazo JS, Parker KL, eds. Goodman & Gilman's The Pharmacological  Basis of Therapeutics. 11th ed. McGraw-Hill; 2021:607-629.


  1. Brunton LB, Lazo JS, Parker KL, eds. Goodman & Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics. 11th ed. McGraw-Hill; 2020.

No author

  1. Physicians' Desk Reference. Thomson PDR; 2019.

One author

  1. Shepard TH. Catalog of Teratogenic Agents. 10th ed. Johns Hopkins Press; 2021.



  1. Mills D. Therapeutic Activities for the Upper Limb. Winsten Press, 2020. Accessed May 29, 2021.


Journal Article


  1. Spencer J. Physician, heal thyself - but not on your own please. Med Educ. 2017;89(2):548-549.


  1. Michaels MP, Patrickson GM. Combination of manipulation, exercise, and physical therapy for the treatment of a 57-year-old woman with lateral epicondylitis. J Manipulative Physiol Ther. 2015;32(2):166-172.  Accessed May 29, 2021.

Full-text with DOI

  1. Coppola SM, Collins SM. Is physical therapy more beneficial than unsupervised home exercise in treatment of post surgical knee disorders? A systematic review. Knee. 2016;16(3):171-175. doi:10.1016/j.knee.2008.09.001.




  1. Di Rado A. Inflammatory breast cancer: hope on the horizon. Los Angeles Times. March 15, 2015:A3.



  1. Perex-Pina R. Children in shelters hit hard by asthma. New York Times. March 2, 2017. Accessed May 20, 2021.



  1. National Center for Health Statistics. Diabetes. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Accessed May 30, 2021.