How to Cite: APA

Information on citing references.



Bernstein, T. M. (2015). The careful writer: A modern guide to English usage. Philadephia: Atheneum.


Bjork, R. A. (2016). Retrieval inhibition as an adaptive mechanism in human memory. In H. L. Roediger & F. I. M. Craik (Eds.), Varieties of memory & consciousness (pp. 309-330). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Edited book

Gobbs, J. T., & Huang, L. N. (Eds.). (2013). Children of color: Psychological interventions with minority youth. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.


Data Set

Census Bureau. (2016). State profiles. [Data file]. Available from US Census Bureau website:



Library database

Pecore, J. T. (2014). Sounding the spirit of Cambodia: The living tradition of Khmer music and dance-drama in a Washington, D.C. community. (Doctoral dissertation). Available from ProQuest Dissertations and Theses database. (UMI No. 1434728)


Caprette, C. L. (2012). Conquering the cold shudder: The origin and evolution of snake eyes. (Doctoral dissertation, Ohio State University). Retrieved from



Seton, E. T. (2015). The Arctic prairies: A canoe-journey of 2,000 miles in search of the caribou. New York: C. Scribner's Sons. Retrieved from


Encyclopedia Article

Graham, G. (2014). Behaviorism. In E. L. Zalta (Ed.), The Stanford encyclopedia of philosophy. Retrieved January 7, 2016, from


Journal Article

Article with DOI

The DOI (digital object identifier) may be part of the citation or abstract of a record, or may be found on the first page of an article, especially in pdf format. To find a DOI go to To verify a DOI go to  APA style prefers one use DOIs.

Wilens, T. E., & Biederman, J. (2013). Alcohol, drugs, and attention deficit / hyperactivity disorder: A model for the study of addictions in youth. Journal of Psychopharmacology, 20(4), 580-588. doi:10.1177/0269881105058776

Article with no DOI

Tang, P., Yuan, W., & Tseng, H. (2016). Clinical follow-up study on diabetes patients participating in a health management plan. Journal of Nursing Research, 13(4), 253-261. Retrieved from
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Hughes, J. C., Brestan, E. V., & Valle, L. A. (2014). Problem-solving interactions between mothers and children. Child and Family Behavior Therapy, 26(1), 1-16. 


Jerome, L., Segal, A., and Habinski, L. (2015). What we know about ADHD and driving risk: A literature review, meta-analysis and critique. Journal of the Canadian Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 15(3), 105-125. Retrieved from



  Magazine Article


Borowitz, A. (2014, November 15). Pavlov's brother. New Yorker, 80, 63-66.


Borowitz, A. (2014, November 15). Pavlov's brother. New Yorker. Retrieved  from



  Music Recording

General form

Writer, A. (Date of copyright). Title of song [recorded by artist if different from writer]. On Title of album [Medium of recording: CD, record, cassette, etc.]. Location: Label. (Recording date if different from copyright date).


Prophet, C. (2004). Pin a rose on me. On Age of miracles [CD]. New York: BMI. 

Recording by artist other than writer

Goodenough, J. B. (2010). Tails and trotters [Recorded by G. Bok, A. Mayo, & E. Trickett]. On And so will we yet [CD]. Sharon, CT: Folk-Legacy Records. (2012).



  Newspaper Article

Full-text from Web

Brody, J. E. (2013, January 29). Increasingly in decline, frogs face a deadly fungus. New York Times. Retrieved from

Library database

Brody, J. E. (2013, January 29). Increasingly in decline, frogs face a deadly fungus. New York Times, p. 4. Retrieved from Lexis Nexis Academic database.


Brody, J. E. (2013, January 29). Increasingly in decline, frogs face a deadly fungus. New York Times, p. 4.




The Coca-Cola Company. (2015). Form 10-K 2015. Retrieved from Mergent Online database.

The Coca-Cola Company. (2015)). Form 10-K 2015. Retrieved from SEC EDGAR website




Smith, J.D. (2015, October 29). E-ZPass is a life-saver. Retrieved from




APA Citation Tools

Citation tools automate formatting references. 

There are several citation tools that work with the APA style:

If you do use these tools, be sure to review your results carefully.

You are responsible for the accuracy of your paper's citations. 

Always refer to the Publication Manual of the APA for definitive information.

Image source:  Jim Thomas.  Wikimedia Commons.  CC-BY-SA-3.0.

Article Using APA