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Inclusive Pedagogy II | CETL

Facilitating diversity, equity, and inclusion in the classroom.

Classroom Techniques | Activities

Research Articles

Ahmadi, S., Cole, D. G., & Lee, B. (2020). Engaging religious minority students. In Quaye, S. J., Harper, S. R., & Pendakur, S. L.  Student engagement in higher education (3rd ed., pp. 221-236). Routledge.

Print book in Bishop Library. Provides an excellent overview of what colleges and faculty may do to engage religious minority students.


Durant, T. J. (2017). Can I talk about that? Factors influencing spiritual and religious identity exploriation in public higher education. Journal of College and Character18(2), 136-141. 

College students are increasingly interested in spiritual and religious identity exploration. Factors influencing such inquiry at public institutions of higher education include rational empiricism, cultural norms, and faculty and student affairs professionals' uncertainty about what is permissible, as well as their perceived level of preparation to guide such inquiry. Yet, students at public colleges and universities should be provided with opportunities to interrogate issues of purpose, identity, and meaning.


Fosnacht, K. (2020). Religious intolerance on campus: A multi-institution study. Journal of College and Character, 21(4), 244-262. 

Incidents of religious intolerance and discrimination have become too familiar in American society, and today's college campuses are not immune to these incidents. Previous research has shown the negative influence of perceived hostile campus cultures on students' overall learning and development. This study investigated bachelor's degree-seeking students' religious and spiritual discrimination experiences. With particular attention paid to students' self-identified religious/spiritual identities, the study found that students who identify with a non-Christian, world faith tradition more frequently experienced discriminatory acts than their Christian peers. Additionally, the results show that more respect for others' spirituality beliefs on campus was negatively correlated with experiencing acts of religious intolerance. In contrast, increased comfort in expressing religious and spiritual beliefs on campus was positively related to more frequent incidents of religious intolerance.


Nielsen, J. C., Small, J. L. (2019). Four pillars for supporting religious, secular, and spiritual student identitiesJournal of College and Character, 20(2), 180-186.

In an unpublished national research study, "Religious, Secular, and Spiritual Identities in Higher Education," which evaluated how universities addressed issues of religious diversity on campus, interviews with university professionals, students, and community members revealed that the institutions that were successfully engaging in religious, secular, and spiritual identity work were changing their policies and practices at the administrative level in order to support these worldviews. Institutions at which students and members of the campus community generally articulated a sense of belonging and could pinpoint specific policies and practices to support this belonging were deemed successful at addressing religious, secular, and spiritual identity. These institutions exhibited patterns of policy and practice that coalesced around four emerging themes. These "Four Pillars of Policy and Practice" combined to create institutional climates that were markedly different in comparison to other institutions.


Novis-Deutsch, N., & Lifshitz, C.(2016). When Bible and science interact: Teachers' pedagogic and value challenges in teaching religious minority students in higher education. Teaching in Higher Education, 21(5), 487-500.

The integration of highly religious minority students into institutions of higher education poses significant pedagogical and value challenges for students and teachers alike. We offer a framework for analyzing such challenges, distinguishing between practical concerns, identity issues and value conflicts. By contrasting a deficit perspective to "Diversity as resource", we argue that the latter enables teachers to utilize a collaborative knowledge model in class, surmounting some of the value challenges involved. We present the case of ultra-orthodox students in Israel who have recently entered the gates of higher education for the first time in this society's history. We analyze the narratives of 30 lecturers who teach this population. Most of them adopt a deficit perspective and see their role as academic gatekeepers, minimally adjusting content and pedagogy. A smaller group fosters cross-cultural dialog via a "Diversity as resource" perspective. These findings lead to recommendations for successfully teaching highly religious students.