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Inclusive Pedagogy | CETL

Facilitating diversity, equity, and inclusion in the classroom.

Classroom Techniques | Activities

Research Articles

Dutt, K., Pfaff, D. L., Bernstein, A. F., Dillard, J. S. & C. J. Block. (2016). Gender differences in recommendation letters for postdoctoral fellowships in geoscienceNature Geoscience 9, 805-808.

Studies gender differences in recommendation letters, finding that letters written for female applicants typically praised them as solid scientists doing good work ... but were less likely to set the applicant apart from the others. The findings support the idea that gender bias exists unconsciously...and suggest that 'women are potentially disadvantaged from the beginning of their careers.


FitzGerald, C., Martin, A., Berner, D., & Hurst, S. (2019). Interventions designed to reduce implicit prejudices and implicit stereotypes in real world contexts: A systematic review. BMC Psychology7

Implicit biases are present in the general population and among professionals in various domains, where they can lead to discrimination. Many interventions are used, however, uncertainties remain as to their effectiveness. In a systematic review of the literature, thirty articles were identified as eligible. Some techniques, such as engaging with others’ perspective, appear unfruitful, at least in short term implicit bias reduction, while other techniques, such as exposure to counterstereotypical exemplars, are more promising.


Vitriol, J. A., & Moskowitz, G. B. (2021). Reducing defensive responding to implicit bias feedback: On the role of perceived moral threat and efficacy to change. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology96

A common assumption is that increasing awareness of bias can motivate control over prejudiced responding. However, learning that one's actions are biased is threatening, and often motivates a range of self-protective responses to buffer that threat. Data show that interventions which (a) decrease perceived moral blameworthiness for having bias and (b) increase the perceived ability to control bias, reduce defensive responding and increase awareness both in the short-term and approximately six months later. 


Forscher, P. S., Axt, J. R., Herman, M., Lai, C. K., Ebersole, C. R., Devine, P. G., & Nosek, B. A. (2019). A meta-analysis of procedures to change implicit measures. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology117(3), 522–559.

Using a novel technique known as network meta-analysis, we synthesized evidence from 492 studies (87,418 participants) to investigate the effectiveness of procedures in changing implicit measures, which we define as response biases on implicit tasks. We also evaluated these procedures’ effects on explicit and behavioral measures. We found that implicit measures can be changed, but effects are often relatively weak (|ds| < .30). Most studies focused on producing short-term changes with brief, single-session manipulations. Procedures that associate sets of concepts, invoke goals or motivations, or tax mental resources changed implicit measures the most, whereas procedures that induced threat, affirmation, or specific moods/emotions changed implicit measures the least. Bias tests suggested that implicit effects could be inflated relative to their true population values. Procedures changed explicit measures less consistently and to a smaller degree than implicit measures and generally produced trivial changes in behavior. Finally, changes in implicit measures did not mediate changes in explicit measures or behavior. Our findings suggest that changes in implicit measures are possible, but those changes do not necessarily translate into changes in explicit measures or behavior.


Hall, W. J., Chapman, M. V., Lee, K. M., Merino, Y. M., Thomas, T. W., Payne, B. K., Eng, E., Day, S. H., & Coyne-Beasley, T. (2015). Implicit Racial/Ethnic Bias Among Health Care Professionals and Its Influence on Health Care Outcomes: A Systematic ReviewAmerican Journal of Public Health105(12), e60–e76. 

In the United States, people of color face disparities in access to health care, the quality of care received, and health outcomes. Implicit attitudes and behaviors of health care providers have been identified as one of many factors that contribute to health disparities.  We investigated the extent to which implicit racial/ ethnic bias exists among health care professionals and examined the relationships between health care professionals' implicit attitudes about racial/ethnic groups and health care outcomes.  We included a total of 15 studies for review.  These studies concluded that most health care providers appear to have implicit bias in


Milkman, K. L., Akinola, M., & Chugh, D. (2012). Temporal distance and discrimination: An audit study in academiaPsychological Science, 23(7), 710–717.

In our study, faculty members (sample of 6,548 professors) received e-mails from fictional prospective doctoral students seeking to schedule a meeting either that day or in 1 week; students’ names signaled their race (Caucasian, African American, Hispanic, Indian, or Chinese) and gender. When the requests were to meet in 1 week, Caucasian males were granted access to faculty members 26% more often than were women and minorities; also, compared with women and minorities, Caucasian males received more and faster responses. However, these patterns were essentially eliminated when prospective students requested a meeting that same day. Our identification of a temporal discrimination effect is consistent with the predictions of construal-level theory and implies that subtle contextual shifts can alter patterns of race- and gender-based discrimination.