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LAW 200, 220, 250, 260 | Common Law in England

Professor Benesch, Professor Hubler.

Chapter Readings

Chapter 1 Readings

1.1 What is Law?

Core text

  1. Holland and Webb, Chapter 1 ‘Understanding the Law’.

Essential reading

  1. Wacks, Chapter 1 ‘Law’s Roots’ (available on the VLE).

Further reading

  1. Rivlin, Chapter 2 ‘The Law and Its Importance’.

1.2 What is Law For?

Essential reading

  1. Partington, Chapter 2 ‘Law and Society: The Purposes and Functions of Law’ (available on the VLE).

1.3 Sources of Law

Core text

Holland and Webb, Chapter 1 ‘Understanding the Law’.

Further reading

  1. Partington, Chapter 3 ‘Law-Making: Authority and Process’.
  2. Rivlin, Chapter 3 ‘The Invisible Palace I: Common Law and Equity’.

Margin of Appreciation

Essential reading

  1. The Open Society Brief 2012. PDF.
  2. Greer, S. ‘The Interpretation of the European Convention on Human Rights: Universal Principle or Margin or Appreciation? (2010) 3 UCL Human Rights Review 1. Available in HeinOnline through the Online Library.

Proportionality

Essential reading

  1. R v A [2001] UKHL 25, [2001] 3 All ER 1
  2. Lord Justice Laws ‘The Common Law and Europe’ Hamlyn Lectures 2013.

1.4 Different Types of Legal System

Further reading

  1. Slorach, Chapter 2 ‘Sources of Law in England & Wales’.
  2. Tetley, W. ‘Mixed Jurisdictions: Common Law vs Civil Law (Codified and Uncodified) PDF’ (Part I) and (Part II) (1999) Uniform Law Review 591–618 and 877–907.  (Page links go to Lexis-Nexis full-text.  Also available on HeinOnline.)

1.5 Classification of Law

Core text

Holland and Webb, Chapter 1 ‘Understanding the Law’.

Further reading

Slorach, Chapter 2 ‘Sources of Law in England & Wales’.

1.6 Constitutional Principles and the Legal System

Further reading

  1. Slapper and Kelly, Chapter 2 ‘The Rule of Law and Human Rights’.
  2. Rivlin, Chapter 4 ‘The Invisible Palace II: The Constitution’.  Partington, Chapter 3 ‘Law-making: Authority and Process

1. The Separation of Powers

Essential reading

  1. Parliamentary Briefing on Separation of Powers. (2011) 

The Independence of the Judiciary

Essential reading

  1. United Nations Basic Principles on the Independence of the Judiciary
  2. Lord Phillips ‘Judicial independence’ Lecture at the Commonwealth Law Conference PDF, Kenya, September 2007 

2. The Sovereignty of Parliament

Essential reading

  1. Parliament Website Explanation of Parliamentary Sovereignty

3. The Rule of Law

Essential reading

  1. Short Video Introduction to the Rule of Law by Professor Jeffrey Jowell, Inaugural Director of the Bingham Centre for the Rule of Law.
  2. Lord Bingham ‘The Rule of Law’ 6th Sir David Williams Lecture, November 2006.

Judicial Independence and the Rule of Law

Essential reading

  1. ‘Commentary on the Bangalore Principles of Judicial Conduct' PDF. United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, 2007. 

Why is the Rule of Law Important?

Essential reading

  1. World Justice Project 
  2. Tamanaha, B.Z. ‘The History and Elements of the Rule of Law’ Washington University in St. Louis, Legal Studies Research Paper No. 12-02-07. 

1.7 Doing Justice in Legal Systems

Core text

  1. Holland and Webb, Chapter 5 ‘Law, Fact, and Language’.

Further reading

  1. Genn, H. Judging Civil justice (The Hamlyn Lectures). (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2009) [ISBN 9780521134392] Chapter 1 ‘Introduction: What is Civil Justice For?’ (available on the VLE).

1.7.2 Inquisitorial and Adversarial Procedure

Essential reading

  1. Kessler, A.D. ‘Our Inquisitorial Tradition: Equity Procedure, Due Process, and the Search for an Alternative to the Adversarial’ (2005) 90 Cornell L Rev 1181   (Also available  in  Lexis Nexis and HeinOnline.)
  2. Dean of UCL Laws, Professor Dame Hazel Genn Talks about Her Research and the Study of Law.

Chapters 2 & 3 Readings

Core text

  1. Holland and Webb, Chapter 1 ‘Understanding the Law’.

Further reading

  1. Slorach, Chapter 3 ‘The Court System of England & Wales’.
  2. Cownie, Bradney and Burton, Chapter 3 ‘Courts in “the English Legal System”’.

The United Kingdom Supreme Court (UKSC) (Formerly the Appellate Committee of the House of Lords)

  1. Department for Constitutional Affairs ‘Constitutional Reform: A Supreme Court for the United Kingdom’ Consultation Paper. PDF.  2003. 
  2. Thomas, C. ‘Decision-Making by the United Kingdom Supreme Court and Judicial Committee of the Privy Council: 2009–13’ (Available on the VLE).

Chapter 3

Core text

  1. Holland and Webb, Chapter 6 ‘The Doctrine of Judicial Precedent’.
  2. Chapter 7 ‘How Precedent Operates: Ratio Decidendi and Obiter Dictum’.

Essential reading

  1. Lord Dyson MR ‘Are the Judges Too Powerful?’ Bentham Presidential Address, UCL, 12 March 2014. 
  2. Lord Justice Laws ‘The Common Law and Europe’ Hamlyn Lecture 2013, Lecture III. 

Further reading

  1. Slapper and Kelly, Chapter 4 ‘Sources of Law: Case Law’.
  2. Lord Justice Etherton ‘Liberty, the Archetype and Diversity: A Philosophy of Fudging.' PDF. (October 2010) Public Law 727 (Also available in Westlaw through the Online Library).

3.3.1 Vertical and Horizontal Precedent in the Court Hierarchy

Essential reading

  1. Lord Justice Laws ‘Our Lady of the Common Law’ ICLR Lecture, 1 March 2012. 
  2. Lee, J. ‘The Doctrine of Precedent and the Supreme Court'. PDF. Inner Temple Academic Fellow’s Lecture. 
  3. Austin v Mayor and Burgesses of the London Borough of Southwark [2010]. PDF. UKSC 28 (available on the VLE).

Further reading

  1. Louis Blom-Cooper and Gavin Drewry ‘Correcting Wrong Turns: The 50th Birthday of the 1966 House of Lords Practice Statement on Precedent’ P.L. 2016, Jul, 381–82, (Available in Westlaw through the Online Library).

Horizontal precedent in the Court of Appeal (Civil Division)

Essential reading

  1. Davis v Johnson [1978] 1 All ER 841 (CA), [1978] 1 ALL ER 1132 (HL).

3.4 The European Court of Human Rights and the UK Supreme Court

Essential reading

  1. Lord Irvine of Lairg ‘A British Interpretation of Convention Fights’ Speech December 2011 P.L. 2012, Apr, 237–52 (available in Westlaw through the Online Library).
  2. Lord Mance ‘Destruction or Metamorphosis of the Legal Order?' PDF. Speech at the World Policy Conference, Monaco, December 2013. 
  3. Lord Sumption ‘The Limits of Law'. PDF. 27th Sultan Azlan Shah Lecture, Kuala Lumpur,November 2013.

Further reading

  1. Wright, J. ‘Interpreting Section 2 of the Human Rights Act 1998: Towards an Indigenous Jurisprudence of Human Rights’. Public Law 2009, July, 595–616 (available in Westlaw through the Online Library).

Judges as Law-Makers

Essential reading

  1. McLeod, I. Legal Method. (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2013) ninth edition [ISBN 9781137027689] Chapter 14 ‘Arguments for and Against Judicial Law-Making’ (available on the VLE).
  2. R v R (Marital Exemption) [1992] 1 AC 599.
  3. Nicklinson and Lamb v Ministry of Justice [2013] EWCA Civ 961.

Further reading

  1. Slorach, S. et al., Chapter 5 ‘Case law’.
  2. Sales, P. ‘Law Reform Challenges: The Judicial Perspective’. Statute Law Review, 2018, Vol 39, No. 3, 229–243.

Chapter 4 Readings

Core text

  1. Holland and Webb, Chapters 8 ‘Making Sense of Statutes’.
  2. 9 ‘Interpreting statutes’ 
  3. 10 ‘“Bringing Rights Home”: Legal Method and Convention Rights’.

Essential reading

  1. Bennion, F. Statute Law. (London: Longman, 1990) [ISBN 9780851215808] Chapter 13 ‘Difficulties of the Statute User'. PDF.
  2. Davis v Johnson [1978] 1 All ER 841 (CA), [1978] 1 ALL ER 1132 (HL).

Further reading

  1. McLeod, I. Legal Method. (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2013) ninth edition [ISBN 9781137027689] Chapter 18 ‘Plain Meanings, Mischiefs, Purposes and Legislative Intentions’.
  2. Stychin and Mulcahy, Chapters 5 ‘Statutory Interpretation: Introduction to Legislation’, 6 ‘Statutory Interpretation: The Search for Legislative Intention’.
  3. and 7 ‘Statutory Interpretation: The Impact of the Law of the European Union and European Human Rights Law’.
  4. Sales, P. ‘Modern Statutory Interpretation'. PDF. Article based on the text of a lecture delivered at the Society of Legal Scholars conference in 2016.
  5. Sir John Laws, ‘Statutory Interpretation – The Myth of Parliamentary Intent'. PDF. Renton Lecture in November 2017.

Interpreting the Law of the European Union

  1. Fennelly, N. ‘Legal Interpretation at the European Court of Justice'. PDF. (1996) 20(3) Fordham International Law Journal. (Also available in LexisLibrary and HeinOnline.)

The Impact of the Human Rights Act 1998 on Statutory Interpretation

Holland and Webb, Chapters 9 ‘Interpreting Statutes’

  1. Chapter 11 ‘European Legal Method’
  2. R v Lord Chancellor, (PDF), ex p Witham [1998] 2 WLR 849, [1998] QB 575.

The Interpretation of Domestic Legislation after the Human Rights Act 1998

Holland and Webb, Chapter 10 ‘“Bringing Rights Home”: Legal Method and Convention Rights’.

  1. Rights Brought Home: The Human Rights Bill, PDF.  October 1997. 
  2. R v A (No 2) [2001] UKHL 25, [2002] AC 45.
  3. Feldman, D. The Impact of the Human Rights Act 1998 on English Public Law. PDF.  (2005). 

Declarations of Incompatibility and the Government Response

  1. Ministry of Justice ‘Responding to Human Rights Judgments: Report to the Joint Committee on Human Rights on the Government Response to Human Fights Judgments 2016–17'. PDF. 

Human RIghts: Interpretation or Legislation?

  1. Kavanagh, A. ‘The Elusive Divide Between Interpretation and Legislation Under the Human Rights Act 1998’ (2004) 24(2) Oxford J Legal Studies 259–85.

Chapter 5 Readings

Essential reading

  1. Slapper and Kelly, Chapter 12 ‘The Judiciary’ (available in the Online Library through Dawsonera).
  2. Judiciary of England and Wales ‘Independence’.
  3. Ewing, K.D. ‘A Theory of Democratic Adjudication: Towards a Representative, Accountable and Independent Judiciary’ (2000–01) 38 Alta L Rev 708 (Also available in HeinOnline through the Online Library).

Further reading

  1. Sir Henry Brooke ‘Judicial Independence – Its History in England and Wales’.
  2. Lord Phillips ‘Judicial Independence and Accountability: A View from the Supreme Court’ Speech at UCL February 2011.
  3. Lady Hale ‘Judges, Power and Accountability: Constitutional Implications of Judicial Selection'. PDF.  Speech at the Constitutional Law Summer School, Belfast, 11 August 2017. 
  4. Lord Burnett of Maldon ‘Becoming Stronger Together’ speech at the Commonwealth Judges and Magistrates’ Association annual conference 2018.

Changes Introduced by the Constitutional Reform Act 2005

  1. McGonnell v UK [2000] ECHR 62 (Application no. 28488/95).
  2. Justice Wildhaber (President of the ECtHR from 1998–2007) ‘Judicial Impartiality under the European Convention on Human Rights’.
  3. The Lord Chief Justice Lord Thomas, ‘The Judiciary, the Executive and Parliament: Relationships and the Rule of Law’ 1 December 2014, Institute For Government.
  4. Lord Falconer, ‘The Role of the Lord Chancellor after the 2005 Reforms’, Bentham Presidential Address 2015, UCL, March 2015.

Measures Supporting the Independence of the Judiciary

  1. O’Brien, P. ‘“Enemies of the People”: Judges, the Media, and the Mythic Lord Chancellor'. PDF. Public Law 2017, Nov Supp (Brexit Special Extra Issue 2017), 135–149 (available through Westlaw in the Online Library).

5.6.1 Judicial Impartiality and Conflicts of Interest

  1. R v Bow Street Metropolitan Stipendiary Magistrate, ex p Pinochet Ugarte (No 2) [1999] 2 WLR 272.
  2. Locabail (UK) Ltd v Bayfield Properties Ltd [1999] EWCA Civ 3004.
  3. Porter v Magill [2001] UKHL 67.
  4. Sir Stephen Sedley ‘When Should a Judge Not Be a Judge?’ (January 2011) 33(1)(6) London Review of Books 9–12 (available on the VLE).
  5. Judiciary of England and Wales ‘Guide to Judicial Conduct’. March 2018. 

5.6.4 Guidance on Recusal from the House of Lords post-HRA 1998

  1. Porter v Magill [2001] UKHL 67.

Appointment Process and Outcome

  1. Ministry of Justice ‘The Governance of Britain: Judicial Appointments.' PDF. 2007.
  2. Judicial Appointments Commission website.

Judicial Appointments Prior to the Constitutional Reform Act 2005

  1. Department for Constitutional Affairs ‘Constitutional Reform: A New Way of Appointing Judges'. PDF. Consultation Paper, July 2003.

Judicial Selection Process After the Constitutional Reform Act 2005

  1. Department for Constitutional Affairs ‘Constitutional Reform: A New Way of Appointing Judges'. PDF. July 2003.
  2. Judicial Appointments Commission website. 

The Selection Process

Essential reading

  1. Judicial Appointments Commission: Selection process.

Increasing Judicial Diversity

Essential reading

  1. Lady Hale ‘Making a Difference – Why We Need a More Diverse Judiciary’ (2005) 56 N Ir Legal Q 281 (available in HeinOnline through the Online Library).
  2. House of Lords Constitution Committee on Judicial Appointments, Report, 2012, Chapter 3, Diversity.
  3. House of Lords Constitution Committee on Judicial Appointments, Follow-up Report, 2017, Chapter 4, Diversity. 

Further reading

  1. Lord Sumption ’Home Truths about Judicial Diversity'. PDF. 15 November 2012, Bar Council Law Reform Lecture. 
  2. Lady Hale, Deputy President of the UK Supreme Court ‘Appointments to the Supreme Court'. PDF. 6 November 2015 (Speech at the Conference to mark the 10th Anniversary of the Judicial Appointments Commission, University of Birmingham). 
  3. Justice Report ‘Increasing Judicial Diversity'. PDF. April 2017.

Progress on Judicial Diversity – Too Little, Too Slow?

  1. Judicial Appointments Commission: Diversity Strategy.

Equal Merit Provision – Crime and Courts Act 2013

  1. Gee, G. and K. Malleson ‘Judicial Appointments, Diversity and the Equal Merit Provision’. 

Why Has There Not Been More Progress in Increasing Judicial Diversity?

Essential reading

  1. Lord Sumption ‘Home Truths about Judicial Diversity'. PDF. Bar Council Law Reform Lecture, 15 November 2012.
  2. Lady Hale ‘Equality in the Judiciary.' PDF. Kuttan Menon Memorial Lecture, 21 February 2013.

Further reading

  1. Thomas, C. ‘2014 UK Judicial Attitude Survey: Report of Findings Covering Salaried Judges in England & Wales Courts and UK Tribunals'. PDF.
  2. Judicial Diversity Committee of the Judges’ Council – Report on Progress and Action Plan 2017.

Judicial Power and Relations with the Executive and Legislature

Essential reading

  1. Bogdanor, V. ‘Parliament and the Judiciary: The Problem of Accountability’ UK Public Administration Consortium, Third Sunningdale Accountability Lecture, 9 February 2006.
  2. Lord Sumption ‘The Limits of Law'. PDF.  27th Sultan Azlan Shah Lecture, Kuala Lumpur, November 2013. 

Further reading

  1. Friedman Goldstein, L. ‘Review Essay: From Democracy to Juristocracy’ (2004) 38 Law and Society Review 611–29 (Also available in HeinOnline through the Online Library).

Judicial Power and the Protection of Human Rights

Essential reading

  1. House of Lords Select Committee on the Constitution ‘Relations Between the Executive, the Judiciary and Parliament'. PDF. Sixth Report of 2006–07.
  2. Bradley, A. ‘The New Constitutional Relationship Between the Judiciary, Government and Parliament’, Paper for House of Lords Select Committee on the Constitution, Sixth Report, 2007. 
  3. Al Rawi v The Security Service. PDF.  [2011] UKSC 34.
  4. A and X v Secretary of State for the Home Department. PDF.  [2004] UKHL 56 (known as the Belmarsh case).

Further reading

  1. Slapper and Kelly, Chapter 2 ‘The Rule of Law and Human Rights’ (available in Dawsons through the Online Library).

Prisoners’ Voting Rights

  1. European Court of Human Rights Factsheet on Prisoners’ Right to Vote. PDF. December 2013. 
  2. House of Commons Library Briefing Paper, Prisoners’ Voting Rights: Developments since May 2015, February 2016.
  3. R (on the application of Chester) v Secretary of State for Justice PDF. [2013] UKSC 63; Moohan v Lord Advocate PDF [2014] UKSC 67.

Chapter 6 Readings

  1. Wilson, S., H. Rutherford, T. Storey and N. Wortley English Legal System. (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2018) third edition [ISBN 9780198808152] Chapter 11 ‘Access to Justice’ (available on the VLE).
  2. Lord Neuberger ‘Access to Justice: Welcome Address to Australian Bar Association Biennial Conference'. PDF. 3 July 2017 at 

The Scope of the Civil Justice System

  1. Genn, H. ‘Understanding Civil Justice’ (1997) 50(1) Current Legal Problems 155–87 (available on the VLE).

What is the Civil Justice System for? Civil Justice as a ‘Public Good’

  1. Genn, H. ‘What is Civil Justice for? Reform, ADR, and Access to Justice’ (2012) 24 Yale JL & Human 397 (Also available in HeinOnline through the Online Library).

‘Out of Court’ Settlement

  1. Galanter, M. ‘Worlds of Deals: Using Negotiation to Teach about Legal Process’ (1984) 34 J Legal Education 268 (Also available in HeinOnline).

Civil Justice and the Rule of Law

  1. World Justice Project Rule of Law Index 2020.

Access to Civil Justice and Legal Aid

  1. Smith, R. ‘After the Act: What Future for Legal Aid?’ Tom Sargant Memorial Annual Lecture 2012, London, Tuesday 16 October 2012.
  2. Wilmot-Smith, F. ‘Necessity or Ideology?’ London Review of Books (November 2014).
  3. Brooke, H. ‘The History of Legal Aid – 1945 to 2010.' 
  4. Genn, H. Paths to Justice: What People Do and Think about Going to Law. (Oxford: Hart Publishing, 1999) [ISBN 9781841130392] Chapter 8 ‘Paths to Justice: Which Way Now?’ (available on the VLE).

Is There a Right to Legal Aid in Civil Cases?

  1. Joint Committee on Human Rights ‘The Implications for Access to Justice of the Government’s Proposals to Reform Legal Aid’ Seventh Report of Session 2013–14.
  2. R v Lord Chancellor, ex p Witham [1998] 2 WLR 849, [1998] QB 575.

The Challenge of Providing Accessible and Affordable Civil Justice

  1. Lord Woolf ‘Access to justice’ Interim Report, June 1995, Chapter 3 ‘The Problems and Their Causes’.
  2. Australian Productivity Commission ‘Access to Justice Arrangements: Inquiry Report’ December 2014. 
  3. Action Committee on Access to Justice in Civil and Family Matters ‘Access to Civil & Family Justice: A Roadmap for Change'. PDF. Ottawa, Canada, October 2013.

Reforming the Civil Justice System: Lord Woolf and the Access to Justice Reforms

  1. Wilson, S., H. Rutherford, T. Storey and N. Wortley English Legal System. (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2018) third edition [ISBN 9780198808152] Chapter 15 ‘The Civil Process’.
  2. Lord Woolf, ‘Access to justice’ Final Report, July 1996.

The Continuing Problem of Legal Costs

  1. Department for Constitutional Affairs ‘Further Findings: A Continuing Evaluation of the Civil Justice Reforms’ August 2002. 
  2. Sorabji, J. ‘Prospects for Proportionality: Jackson Implementation’ (2013) 32(2) CJQ 213–30 (available in Westlaw through the Online Library)

Access to Justice and the Rise of Litigants in Person (LIPs)

  1. Genn, H. ‘Do-It-Yourself Law: Access to Justice and the Challenge of Self Representation’ (2013) 32(4) CJQ 411.  (available in Westlaw through the Online Library.)
  2. House of Commons Library briefing paper ‘Litigants in Person: the Rise of the Self Represented Litigant in Civil and Family Cases in England and Wales’ January 2016.

Further reading

  1. Civil Justice Council ‘Access to Justice for Litigants in Person'. PDF. 2011.
  2. The Judicial Working Group on Litigants in Person: Report.  PDF. Judicial Office, July 2013.
  3. Judicial College, Equal Treatment Bench Book (February 2018), Chapter 1 ‘Litigants in Person and Lay Representatives.' PDF. 

Future Reform of the Civil Justice System

  1. Civil Courts Structure Review: Final Report. PDF. July 2016.
  2. Transforming Our Justice System: Summary of Reforms and Consultation, PDF. September 2016. 

Further reading

  1. Civil Courts Structure Review: Interim Report. PDF. December 2015.
  2. Genn, H. ‘Online Courts and the Future of Justice'. PDF.  (Birkenhead Lecture 2017).
  3. The Rt Hon Sir Ernest Ryder, Senior President of Tribunals ‘The Modernization of Access to Justice in Times of Austerity'. PDF.  3 March 2016 (5th Annual Ryder Lecture: the University of Bolton).

Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR) Processes

  1. Cownie, Bradney and Burton, Chapter 11 ‘Alternative Dispute Resolution’ (available on the VLE).
  2. Dunnett v Railtrack plc [2002] EWCA Civ 303.
  3. Halsey v Milton Keynes General NHS Trust [2004] EWCA (Civ) 576.
  4. PGF II SA v OMFS Company [2013] EWCA Civ 1288.

Further reading

  1. Genn, H., S. Riahi and K. Pleming ‘Regulation of Dispute Resolution in England and Wales: A Sceptical Analysis of Government and Judicial Promotion of Private Mediation’, Chapter 7 in F. Steffeck et al. (eds) Regulating Dispute Resolution: ADR and Access to Justice at the Crossroads. (Oxford: Hart Publishing, 2013) [ISBN 9781849462587].
  2. Fiss, O.M. ‘Against settlement’ (1984) 93 Yale Law Journal 1073  (Also available in the Online Library).
  3. Civil Justice Council ‘Interim Report on ADR and Civil Justice'. PDF. October 2017.

Evaluation

  1. Prince, S. ‘ADR after the CPR: Have ADR Initiatives Now Assured Mediation an Integral Role in the Civil Justice System in England and Wales?’ in Dwyer, D. (ed.) The Civil Procedure Rules Ten Years On. (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009) [ISBN 9780199576883] (available on the VLE).
  2. Menkel-Meadow, C. ‘Whose Dispute Is It Anyway? A Philosophical and Democratic Defense of Settlement (In Some Cases)’ (1994–95) 83 Geo LJ 2663 (available in HeinOnline through the Online Library).
  3. Grillo, T. ‘The Mediation Alternative: Process Dangers for Women’ (1991) 100(6) Yale Law Journal 1545–610 (available from several databases through the Online Library)

Online Dispute Resolution (ODR)

  1. Civil Justice Council, Online Dispute Resolution for Low Value Civil Claims. PDF.  February 2015.
  2. European Union website information about ADR & ODR.
  3. ODR Supporting papers.

Disappearing Trials, Privatisation of Justice and the Rule of Law

  1. Genn, H. ‘Why the Privatisation of Civil Justice is a Rule of Law Issue'. PDF. 36th FA Mann Lecture, 2012.
  2. Menkel-Meadow, C. ‘Is the Adversary System Really Dead? Dilemmas of Legal Ethics as Legal Institutions and Roles Evolve’ (2004) 57 Current Legal Problems 85 (available on the VLE).
  3. Kritzer, H.M. ‘Disappearing Trials? A Comparative Perspective’ (2004) 1(3) Journal of Empirical Legal Studies 735–54, p.752 (Also available in HeinOnline through the Online Library)

Chapter 7 Readings

  1. Sanders, A., R. Young and M. Burton Criminal justice. (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2010) fourth edition [ISBN 9780199541317] Chapter 1 ‘The Aims and Values of “Criminal Justice”’ (available on the VLE).

What is the Criminal Justice System for?

  1. The Right Honourable Lord Justice Auld ‘Review of the Criminal Courts of England and Wales’ September 2001, Chapter 1.

Further reading

  1. Garside, R. ‘The Purpose of the Criminal Justice System’ (Centre for Crime and Justice Studies).

‘Crime Control’ and ‘Due Process’ Models of Criminal Justice Systems

  1. Packer, H.L. (1968) ‘Two Models of the Criminal Process’, reprinted from The Limits of the Criminal Sanction, with the Permission of the publishers, Stanford University Press.

Due Process in Criminal Proceedings: Article 6 of the ECHR

  1. European Court of Human Rights ‘Guide on Article 6 Right to a Fair Trial (Criminal Limb)'. PDF. 2014. 

The Investigation of Crime: the Police and their Powers

  1. Malleson, K. and R. Moules The Legal System. (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2010) fourth edition [ISBN 9780199560189] Chapter 11 ‘Police powers’ (available on the VLE).

Stop and Search

  1. Malleson, K. and R. Moules The Legal System. (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2010) fourth edition [ISBN 9780199560189] Chapter 11 ‘Police powers’ (available on the VLE).
  2. Miller, J. ‘Profiling Populations Available for Stops and Searches’ Police Research Series Paper 131, Home Office, 2000. 
  3. Equality and Human Rights Commission ‘Stop and Think: A Critical Review of the Use of Stop and Search Powers in England and Wales’ 2010, updated April 2014.
  4. Home Office, Revised PACE Code A. PDF. (Stop and Search). 

Arrest and Detention

  1. European Convention on Human Rights. PDF. 

The Prosecution of Crime: the Crown Prosecution Service

  1. Crown Prosecution website.
  2. Crown Prosecution Service ‘The Code for Crown Prosecutors'. PDF.  October 2018.

Further reading

  1. Thirty Years of the CPS – Law Society Gazette article by Alison Saunders DPP, October 2016.

How Does the CPS Assess the Public Interest? The Case of Assisted Suicide

  1. Director of Public Prosecutions ‘Policy for Prosecutors in Respect of Cases of Encouraging or Assisting Suicide’ February 2010, updated October 2014, Crown Prosecution Service. 
  2. Keir Starmer QC ‘Prosecuting in the Public Interest: CPS Guidelines from Assisted Suicide to Social Media’.
  3. R (on the Application of Purdy) v DPP [2009] UKHL 45, [2010] 1 AC 345. PDF.
  4. R (on the Application of Nicklinson) (AP) v Ministry of Justice [2014] UKSC 38. PDF.

Further reading

  1. R v Gilderdale 2010 (Unreported) 

Evaluation of the CPS

  1. Government White Paper ‘Justice for all’ 2002, Chapter 3. Available in the Online Library, through the UK Parliamentary Papers (ProQuest) database

The Adjudication of Crime: Courts, Judges and Juries

  1. Ward, R. and A. Akhtar Walker & Walker’s English legal system. (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2010) 11th edition [ISBN 9780199588107] Chapter 17 ‘The Criminal Justice System’ (available on the VLE).
  2. The Right Honourable Lord Justice Auld ‘Review of the Criminal Courts of England and Wales’ September 2001, Chapter 1 

Jury Decision-Making in Criminal Trials

  1. Lord Devlin ‘Trial by Jury'. PDF. Hamlyn Lectures, Eighth Series, Stevens & Son, 1956, at 
  2. Thomas, C. ‘Diversity and Fairness in the Jury System'. PDF.  Ministry of Justice Research Series 2/07, June 2007.
  3. Summary of Findings. PDF. 
  4. The Right Honourable Lord Justice Auld ‘Review of the Criminal Courts of England and Wales’ September 2001, Chapter 5. 

Further reading

  1. Ward, R. and A. Akhtar Walker & Walker’s English legal system. (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2010) 11th edition [ISBN 9780199588107] Chapter 10 ‘Juries’

Excusal from Jury Service and Justice System Professionals as Jurors

  1. Coen, M. ‘“With Cat-Like Tread”: Jury Trial and the European Court of Human Rights’ (2014) 14 Human Rights Law Review 107–31 (Also available in HeinOnline).
  2. Spencer, J.R. ‘Police Officers on Juries’ (2012) 71 Cambridge Law Journal 254–57.
  3. R v Abdroikof, R v Green and R v Williamson [2007] UKHL 37, [2007] 1 WLR 2679.

Reasons and Secrecy

  1. The Honourable Lord Reed ‘The Confidentiality of Jury Deliberations’ (2003) 37:1 The Law Teacher 1–17 (available on the VLE and in HeinOnline through the Online Library).
  2. Law Commission ‘Contempt of Court'.  PDF. Consultation Paper No 209, November 2012, Chapters 1 and Chapter 4 
  3. Law Commission ‘Contempt of Court (1): Juror Misconduct and Internet Publications’ December 2013, Chapter 4
  4. Taxquet v Belgium (2012) 54 EHRR 26.
  5. R v Mirza [2004] UKHL 2, [2004] AC 1118.
  6. AG v Scotcher [2005] UKHL 36, [2005] 1 WLR 1867.

Further reading

  1. Coen, M. ‘“With cat-like tread”: jury trial and the European Court of Human Rights’ (2014) 14 Human Rights Law Review 107–31. 

Race and Jury Fairness

  1. Daly, G. and Pattenden, R. ‘Racial Bias and the English Criminal Trial’ (2005) 64(3) Cambridge Law Journal 678–710 (available in the Online Library).
  2. Thomas, C. ‘Are Juries Fair?' PDF. Ministry of Justice Research Series 1/10, February 2010.  
  3. Thomas, C. ‘Ethnicity and Fairness of Jury Trials in England and Wales 2006–2014'. PDF. (2017) Crim LR, 11, 860–876. (Also available in Westlaw through the Online Library).
  4. R v Ford [1989] 3 All ER 445.
  5. R v Smith [2003] EWCA Crim 283.
  6. Sander v UK [2000] ECHR 194.

Further reading

  1. Royal Commission on Criminal Justice Report’ 1993, Chapter 8 ‘Jury selection', pp.131–33. PDF.

Jury Fairness and the Internet

  1. Law Commission ‘Contempt of Court (1): Juror Misconduct and Internet Publications', PDF, 2013, especially Chapter 4.
  2. Thomas, C. ‘Avoiding the Perfect Storm of Juror Contempt' PDF, (2013) Criminal Law Review 483 (available in Westlaw through the Online Library). There is also a summary of findings here.
  3. AG v Dallas [2012] EWHC 156 (Admin). PDF.
  4. AG v Davey and AG v Beard [2013] EWHC 2317 (Admin), [2013] All ER (D) 391

Non-Jury Trials

  1. Crown Prosecution Service ‘Non-Jury Trials’.
  2. J, S, M v R [2010] EWCA Crim 1755. PDF.

Conclusion

  1. Roberts, J.V. and M. Hough ‘Public Opinion and the Jury: An International Liiterature Review’ Ministry of Justice Research Series 1/09, February 2009.

Appeals and Correcting Miscarriages of Justice

  1. Royal Commission on Criminal Justice Report’ 1993, Chapter 10 ‘Court of Appeal’. PDF.

The Criminal Cases Review Commission

  1. ‘Royal Commission on Criminal Justice Report’ 1993, Chapter 11 ‘Corrections of Miscarriages of Justice’. PDF.
  2. Naughton, M. and G. Tan ‘Innocence Network UK (INUK) Symposium on the Reform of the Criminal Cases Review Commission (CCRC) Report’ 2013. PDF.
  3. Website of the Criminal Cases Review Commission.
  4. CCRC 20th Anniversary speech by Richard Foster CBE, Chair of the Criminal Cases Review Commission. Word Doc.